The climate of the country is hot, dry and sharply continental. Every year brings over 300 days of sunshine and 300 millimetres(12 inches) of rainfall. The coldest month of the year is January and the temperature on the Ustyrt plateau may fall to -35 C degress but in the most cities the average temperature is above +10 C. In the far north of Uzbekistan winter lasts for almost five months while in the valleys for only six weeks. The hottest summer month is July. The average temperature on the plains and in the foothills reaches + 30 +35 C, and in the south (Termez) more than +40 C degrees. Interesting to note that the rise of summer temperature to plus 42-44 degrees on the plains and foothills of Uzbekistan is a common occurrence. The heat in July is relatively easy o endure thanks to dryness of air. The burning heat of summer is offset by the low humidity. Mountain areas are refreshingly cool in summer, freezing, cool and slowly in winter.
Geographic position, population & state language
The Republic of Uzbekistan, the “Land of Uzbeks” forms the very heart of Central Asia. Uzbekistan bordering with the Republics – of Kazakhstan to the North, of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east and Southeast, Turkmenistan to the Southwest as well as Afghanistan to the South. Uzbekistan covers a territory of 447,400 sq.km. Total population of Uzbekistan is 30 million plus, more than 80% are Uzbeks, and the rest 20% of population are Russians, Kazakhs, Tatars, Koreans, Tajiks and so on (about 138 nationalities). The Karakalpaks have autonomy within Republic of Uzbekistan. The length of the country from west to east is 1425 Km and from north to south is -930 Km. The biggest rivers in Uzbekistan are the Amu-Darya and the Syr-Darya. The full length of the Amu Darya is 1437 Km and the Syr Darya- 2137 Km. State language is Uzbek. It belongs to the Turkic group of languages.
The most cherished public holidays is Navruz – the Central Asian New Year that falls on March 21 in Uzbekistan. During this two-day spring festival everyone takes part in unforgettable ceremonies with singing, dancing and relishing the seven special dishes, that names begin with an ‘S’, Sumalakh(a dish made of couched wheat) is one of them. Public places are full of places watching kurash – a national wrestling and epic poetry recital by wandering bakshi minstrels. The festival culminates in a ritual ploughing of the first furrow in the year by the most respected elder-“aksakal” in the village. Every year Uzbekistan holding major Muslim holidays – Hayit(Hari Raya, Eid Al Fitri) and Qurbon Hayit(Hari Raya Korban). The dates of both holidays are established according to the Muslim(lunar) calender.